By Shoib Ahmad Baba, Nasheeman Ashraf
This e-book is a made from years of analysis on saffron biology. It intends to provide a huge yet concise assessment of some of the facets of apocarotenoid biosynthesis in Crocus sativus, its law and pharmacology .
Crocus sativusL. of relatives Iridaceae is a crucial medicinal plant. The dried stigma of C. sativus flower is taken into account because the world's most expensive spice. Saffron is the assets of distinctive carotenoid derived molecules referred to as apocarotenoids which come with crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. those molecules are synthesized within the tissue and developmental level particular demeanour. in addition to supplying color, aroma and flavour to the spice, those molecules have great medicinal significance.
The ebook uncovers significant recommendations of apocarotenoids biosynthesis and offers deeper and extra whole knowing approximately their biotechnological and pharmacological applications.
The booklet is split into 3 sections –
The first part offers a normal advent of C. sativus, its apocarotenoids, their biosynthesis, legislation and shipping. moment part offers information regarding the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) that are the main gamers in apocarotenoid biosynthesis. The category of plant CCDs, their constitution, response mechanism, biotechnological software are completely mentioned. the ultimate part bargains with the most important pharmacological houses of C. sativus apocarotenoids, starting from their function as anticancer to their software as neuroprotective molecules.
This is a one in every of its variety booklet on Crocus sativus. It can be priceless for the researchers operating on Crocus sativus, students and in addition practitioners all in favour of extraction and bio-synthesis of the priceless scientific components.
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Additional resources for Apocarotenoids of Crocus sativus L: From biosynthesis to pharmacology
2004). These enzymes are promiscuous in nature as far as their substrate specificity is concerned and recognize any carotenoid from ζ-carotene onward. 5 Role and Biotechnological Applications of CCDs 33 reduced concentrations of all apocarotenoid volatiles, but they are not completely excluded (Simkin et al. 2004), suggestive of involvement of more than one additional CCDs in vivo. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase play an important role in carotenoid turnover. Downregulation or inactivation of these enzymes can help to increase the carotenoid content of some important crop plants.
Crocin 2. 7 Neuroprotective PC-12 cell line Anticancer Human cervical cancer HeLa cell line Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma KYSE-150 Anticancer 3. Safranal Neuroprotective Hippocampal HT22 cell line Cardioprotective H9c2 cardiomyocytes K-562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells Antitumor Probable mechanism Suppression of Bcl-2 and activation of Bax Suppression of LPS-stimulated expression of nitric oxide synthase by inducing heme oxygenase-1 expression Inhibition of intracellular ROS Inhibition of COX-2 expression Increased expression of proapoptotic Bax and activated caspase 3 Impairing the antioxidant defense and detoxification systems Reduction of oxidative stress Inhibition of Bcr-Abl protein References Mehri et al.
In experimental rats which were pretreated with crocetin, an enhancement in the antioxidant potential of enzymes was observed. This was preceded by protection against the harmful effects of 6‐hydroxy dopamine, suggesting that it may prove as an efficient treatment to overcome this distressing disease (Xuan et al. 1999; Bhargava 2011). The above studies provide strong evidences that Crocus apocarotenoids prevent the onset or progression of nervous systemrelated disorders. However, further studies are required to find out the exact mechanism of action by which C.