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By Maria Dolores Luque Castro; Miguel Valcarcel Cases; M T Tena

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However, it is the analytes which are normally extracted. Leaching can be directly applied to untreated samples. Extraction of the analytes can be facilitated or improved by a prior derivatization. g. g. conversion of a silicon matrix into silica by heating with NaOH at 360°C and 350atm, and determination of boron in the resulting liquid phase). Derivatization can thus act on both the matrix and the analytes. The extracting phase can be liquid or a supercritical fluid, depending on the nature of the analytes and matrix of the solid sample.

These facts show that the individual critical conditions of mixture components cannot be directly extrapolated to the mixture in question, particularly in the vicinity of the two critical points. In type II equilibria (Fig. 15), the gas-liquid critical curve is also continuous, but reflects a liquid-liquid phase separation at low temperatures. There is a liquid-liquid-vapour (LLV) equilibrium curve that intercepts the liquid-liquid critical curve at an UCEP, where both liquid phases become identical in the presence of a vapour phase.

These seemingly contradictory facts are easy to explain, though: SFE aids efficient development of the first stage of the analytical process, which, as shown in Fig. 1, is also the one calling for the greatest innovations in the context of current analytical chemistry. The reasons for the effervescent emergence of SFE in analytical chemistry are related to the significant enhancements it has contributed to the resolution of such a traditionally thorny problem as the analysis of solid samples. Many of the ideal properties of a leaching system (Fig.

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