Download A Theory of Philosophical Fallacies by Leonard Nelson, Fernando Leal, D. G. Carus PDF

By Leonard Nelson, Fernando Leal, D. G. Carus

Presented as a Vorlesung within the German philosophical culture, this ebook provides the main certain account of Nelson’s approach to argument research, celebrated by way of many luminaries equivalent to Karl Popper. It was once written in 1921 towards the relativistic, subjectivistic and nihilistic traits of Nelson’s time. The ebook comprises an exposition of a style that may be a additional improvement of Kant’s transcendental dialectics, by means of an software to the serious research of arguments by way of many recognized thinkers, together with Bentham, Mill, Poincaré, Leibniz, Hegel, Einstein, Bergson, Rickert, Simmel, Brentano, Stammler, Jellinek, Dingler, and Meinong. The booklet provides a common thought of philosophical argumentation as obvious from the point of view of the common fallacies devoted by means of anyone arguing philosophically, no matter if specialist philosophers or philosophical laypeople. even though the character of philosophy and philosophical argumentation is without doubt one of the such a lot recurrent items of mirrored image for philosophers, this booklet represents the 1st try at a common conception of philosophical fallacy. in line with Nelson, it's within the form of fake dilemmas that error in reasoning continuously emerge, and fake dilemmas are continually the results of an identical mechanism--the unwitting substitute of 1 proposal for another.

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The axioms of geometry, for example, cannot be established by pure logic. From the standpoint of pure logic these axioms are just as good as any other assumptions that contradict them. e. there is no experiment that can establish their truth. Experiments have to This is a mathematical objection. In calculus it is impossible to find a unique solution satisfying two (or more) maxima at the same time. See Edgeworth (1881, Appendix VI). 3 See Mill (1861, Chap. II). 2 Lecture III 39 be interpreted in order to draw conclusions of such scope, and this interpretation already presupposes the axioms.

There is, or at least there was in the past, widespread superstition surrounding the omnipotence of logic. That superstition does not take into account the fact that reasoning can indeed be correct in its logical form whilst its claim to be true is unjustified. An error can easily come about by expecting too much from logic, that is, when the relationship of the logical form to the content of the reasoning is misinterpreted and the mere logical form is considered sufficient to certify the truth of the outcome of an argument.

Poincaré, Henri. 1902. La science et l’hypothèse. Paris: Flammarion. [English Trans. The Foundations of Science: Science and Hypothesis, The Value of Science, Science and Method, New York, The Science Press, 1929, pp. 9–197]. Lecture IV Abstract The excess of confidence in logic culminates in logicism, a position common to medieval Scholasticism and modern rationalism. This mistake can best be illustrated by the idea, especially developed by Leibniz, that the lack of contradiction in a concept is a warrant that the corresponding object exists.

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