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By Abbot C.J.

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Sassen (1996) puts the figure at 4–5 million in 1993, but it may be assumed that, in the meantime, the numbers have risen. 3. Adding the lowest estimation of all countries results in 22 million; adding the highest estimation of all countries results in 44 million. But for many countries not even ‘guestimations’ are available, hence the overall figure could very well be much higher. 4. For this argument and further references see also OECD, 1990: 67. 5. Meanwhile, in Australia, ‘queue jumper’ has become another synonym for illegal immigrant.

1995) conducted an Irregular Migration 31 assessment of the economic effects of migration; they estimated that the GNP in 1992 was almost 6 per cent higher than it would have been without immigration. And more recently, in the UK, according to the Home Office, immigrants, who represent 8 per cent of the population, generate 10 per cent of Britain’s GDP (see The Guardian, 14 November 2003). Migration represents either scarce and highly skilled or inexpensive labour. Migrants, including the undocumented (as this volume discloses), pay direct and indirect taxes.

Rivera-Batiz (2001) clarifies that because most research is concentrated on Mexican immigrants, whose characteristics tend to be specific (illegal entrants, low educational attainment, comparatively young), the theoretical conclusions it reaches are biased. They cannot be simply projected on to migrants of other origins, who are instead often visa over-stayers and better educated. Research on undocumented migration in Europe therefore has the potential to produce unique results. 2). 2 Qualitative research on irregular immigrants in Europe Country Project/researcher Region/city No.

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