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By Johnstone

R. William Johnstone served at the transportation protection employees of the 9-11 fee, and wrote this publication to construct upon and complement the Commission's paintings. In its pages, he explains the aviation safeguard procedure failure on September 11, makes use of that as a way for comparing post-9/11 transportation safeguard efforts, and proposes treatments to persevered shortcomings.9/11 and the way forward for Transportation defense is predicated on details initially supplied to the Sept. 11 fee, augmented through unpublished studies and a wealth of different fabric that has come to mild because the issuance of the Commission's personal document in July 2004. half One analyzes the aviation defense system's background and associations to provide an explanation for why the process failed on September 11. half appears at what has been performed in aviation and transportation protection due to the fact 9-11, together with the Commission's concepts and the congressional reaction to them. ultimately and most importantly, half 3 outlines a urged procedure for bettering present U.S. transportation safety. It starts off with primary coverage questions that needs to be replied if we're to optimize transportation safety efforts, and concludes with either underlying ideas for motion and particular suggestions.

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Congress, which provided the money and was responsible for oversight of the system, collectively and, with few exceptions, individually did not steer the FAA toward strengthening security, in its hearings or in its spending decisions. The Office of Management and Budget, on behalf of all recent administrations from both parties, consistently hampered attempts to direct more policy attention and resources toward civil aviation security. And, again with very few exceptions, the leadership of the airlines, which long ago accepted the necessity for assisting government efforts to improve safety for their customers, and which, on 9/11, had ultimate 15:21 ggbk003c04 GGBK003/Johnstone The 9/11 Hijackings Johnstone-C9075 March 27, 2006 43 responsibility for the single most important antihijacking defense (checkpoint screening), consistently and persistently fought virtually all efforts to increase security measures, absent a disaster or very specific and “credible” threat intelligence.

Though there were indications that there was more local reporting of security problems at Logan Airport and that, within the world of civil aviation security, United Airlines had a better reputation for security consciousness than did American, there was nothing to suggest that such issues entered into the terrorists’ targeting of well-fueled Eastto-West transcontinental flights. 27 But beyond that, what if a superior screening workforce had somehow, in contravention of everything we have learned about the history of civil aviation security, been brought about prior to a hijacking disaster?

Carriers, labor groups, aircraft manufacturers and general aviation supporters carefully scrutinize every proposed safety regulation and question its efficacy and impact on costs. S. air carriers, which, unlike the situation in many other countries where civil aviation is run directly or indirectly by national governments, are privately owned, for-profit enterprises. ”26 The long-time Inspector General of the Department of Transportation, Kenneth Mead, testified to the 9/11 Commission that there were great pressures within the civil aviation security system on behalf of the air carriers to control security costs and to “limit the impact of security requirement on aviation operations, so that the industry could concentrate on its primary mission of moving passengers and aircraft.

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